DENTAL GUIDE

Dental calculus

11

Dental calculus, that contains several bacteria, is made of the calcified pellicle that deposits on the teeth. The amount of it depends on the location of the tooth, on the saliva consistency and also on certain inherited genes. It can be removed only with a professional method. Dental calculus results in gingival bleeding, foul breath and parodontal inflammation that may cause the slack, then later the loss of the healthy teeth as well. Parodontal inflammation is endemic nowadays and it plays an important role in the development of edentulousness. Dental calculus looks yellow-brownish, in most of the cases it is located on the upper molar (by the cheek) and the lower incisor tooth (by the tongue) as that is where the outlet of the salivary gland is located.

 

There are different types of the dental calculus:

  • dental calculus located on the surface of the tooth is visible and yellow-whitish coloured. Its surface is rough therefore covered with pellicle that is danger to the gum, then later the parodontium too.
  • dental calculus located under the gum cannot be seen, it develops in the gingival pocket next to the tooth and is tangible only with special devices. It is black, very hard with a rough surface. It plays an important role in steady-state parodontinum diseases.

Dental calculus removal:

Dental calculus is removed with a special ultrasonic depurator. During the vibration it removes the dental calculus from the tooth enamel, but does not damage the enamel in the meantime. If necessary, we anesthetize the mucosa with lidocaine spray before the treatment.

The dental calculus, that is located under the gum, is removed with a special manual device. After removal we polish the tooth using special brush and paste. Pellicle does not stick so easily to smooth surfaces, therefore – with regular brushing – a clean, calculus-free tooth surface can be maintained for a long time.

After the treatment, the neck of the tooth may be sensitive (to cold or warm temperature and sweet or sour tastes) for one or two weeks. It can be ceased with using fluoride gel, sensitive toothpaste or oral rinse. The time of dental calculus recurrence depends on one’s nutritional and oral hygiene habits. It is recommended to have an oral hygiene treatment in every half year.

Intraoral sandblasting: for a professional oral hygiene we use Prophyflex produced by KaVo. It blows a special mixture of smooth sand and water on a high speed level that helps to remove the smallest dental calculus and the tooth discoloration painlessly, even from the most hidden places. While polishing it shapes a smooth tooth surface.

 

Conservative treatment

Dental caries and its treatment

Dental caries is the most common human chronicity that causes tooth fractures, starting from the tooth surface it reaches the dental pulp. Pellicle, nutritional and dental hygienic habits, micro-organisms in the oral cavity, heritable and environmental factors can all result in dental caries. Initially it can be reversed with a fluoride treatment, but later on it extends deeper, producing a cave that can be treated only with filling.

Dental caries evolves on surfaces that are hard to clean, such as occlusal fissure and tooth surfaces beside the gum or close to each other, if the patient does not use dental floss.

Fissure sealing

Fissure sealing is used only on permanent teeth. The cross-section of the occlusal fissure has a sand-glass shape; bacteria reach the inner, easy decaying layers of the tooth through a micrometre sized gap, thus damaging the tooth unnoticeably.

64During the treatment the tooth’s surface is cleaned (without drilling) then covered it with a special filling that flows into the fissure thus blocking the way of the pellicle that contains several bacteria.

The treatment is suggested after the appearance of the first permanent tooth (around the age of six); this efficient intervention can be carried out not only for children but for adults too.

Advantages:

With fissure sealing, dental caries can be prevented in a pain-free way, healthy and long-lasting teeth can be preserved, besides, it is cheaper than any kind of filling.

 

Aesthetic filling

tömésAesthetic filling – that is the same colour as the original tooth – plays an important role in both conservative and aesthetic dental treatments. During the filling procedure – for smaller and average size dental caries treatment – we use high quality, aesthetically outstanding materials that harden on exposure to light; and in the meantime, we remove only a minimal bone amount. These aesthetic filling materials incorporate (mechanically and chemically) into the tooth, besides, they are wear-resistant. Aesthetic filling is absolutely suitable for replacing amalgam filling.

 

Previous to the treatment, there is a thorough dental examination and X-ray, besides, the patient receives information about the forthcoming treatment, anaesthetization, dental materials and the potential complications. It is recommended to have a meal before treatment, as the patient is not allowed to eat anything after the anaesthetic injection, as long as the stiffening lasts (for about two or three hours).

 

Preparing a dental filling

untitled30The treatment is executed with local anaesthesia. We remove the dental caries with a drill then – in order to avoid the potential sensitivity after treatment – we reline the tooth. Thus, a kind of an “insulation” is set between the filling and the bone. Afterwards a thin layer of glue and then a layer of filling material is placed on the surface of the tooth; and repeating this method the filling is made layer by layer. The layers are lit with a blue light that hardens the filling material. The surface of the filling is formed to the right shape with a drill. In the end, we polish the surface of the tooth.

Potential complications after filling

After the preparation of a filling, sensitivity to cold or warm may occur that can last for one or two weeks. Patients may feel masticatory pain (this can be ceased with the correction of the filling), and the place of the injection may be sensitive too. Due to coffee, tea, coke, smoking and the colouring of some food, the filling along with the teeth may be discoloured.

Incisal edge restoration

We restore the injured or shortened frontal teeth with using an aesthetic filling material that are the same colour (and the same transparent at the edges) as the original teeth.

Inlay, onlay (aesthetic inlay)

dental-inlays-and-onlayInlay is a type of filling that is made by a dental technologist; it is suitable for a partial or full reconstruction of the occlusal surface of the molar. Also, it is a solution to massive dental caries, broken teeth, tooth edge restoration and for raising the bite (in case of a too powerful bite). It is more permanent than traditional aesthetic fillings as, after making the impression, it is produced under industrial conditions, on high temperature and pressure. The ready-made inlay is glued to the previously prepared hole, securing the closing at the edge of the tooth and the inlay.

 

Inlays can be made of:

  • plastic (with fine glass mixture)
  • ceramic
  • gold-ceramic

Root canal treatment and filling

During root canal treatment we clean the alveolus inside the tooth. Massive dental cavity may make root canal treatment essential if the cavity reaches the chamber – where vessels and nerves are – and causes pulpitis. Inflammation may occur if the tooth’s blood circulation stops, and bacteria may proliferate in the parodontium and in the surrounding bones. The so-evolved inflamed teeth may cause other inflammations in other parts of the human body.

 

Symptoms:

intense pain to cold, sweet flavour, then to warm; dull pain during the day and unbearable pain at night; throbbing and tension pain in the tooth region; masticatory pain; or swollen face.

Dental pulp removal is executed with local anaesthesia. Inflammation may cause unsuccessful anaesthesia. In this case, we devitalise the tooth, i.e. we place a nerve-killing paste on the top of the pulp chamber and this turns the nerve lifeless and numb in a few days. Painless root canal treatment is guaranteed this way. Root canal treatment is executed manually and with a modern, reliable and quick equipment. The vessel and nerve formulas are removed with sterile needles, and then – after sterilisation – the root canal filling is placed in bacteria-free canals.

Root canal filling method is executed with using the latest materials and techniques with the aim of making the canals airtight.

Newly filled tooth may be sensitive to bites for a few days. After root canal treatment blood circulation stops in the tooth, it can desiccate and turn fragile, therefore it has to be supplied with a dental crown.

Dowel abutment

Saving tooth and restoring tooth loss are two of the most important tasks of a dentist. If a dental crown breaks but the root remains unharmed, the preparation of the broken part can be executed with a dowel, placed in the root, and a dental crown. In this way, the neighbouring teeth can be saved as they don’t need to be ground to make a bridge onto them.

It is a principle that dowel is allowed to be placed only into a tooth that has undergone a root canal treatment, therefore root canal filling has to be made first. Making an X-ray is essential to reveal a potential inflammation of the root apex region. Afterwards the dentist decides whether the root is suitable for a dowel abutment. Post and core cannot be prepared if the root is curved or a part of the tooth is broken under the gum.

There are different types of dowels, such as metal dower or the ones that are made by a dental technician: cast dowel and glass-fiber dowel.

Ceramic shell

hélykerámia 2Ceramic shell is prepared for correcting enamel defects and discoloration on the frontal teeth, or for correcting incisal marginal edge damages and for reducing and closing gaps between the teeth. There are two kinds of it: direct and indirect ceramic shell.

 

Direct shell is made by a dentist in his dental office with using a special material of 8-10 colour tones. There is only a small amount of bone waste during the treatment (0,4-0,8 mm), and the result can be seen immediately. It is less vulnerable than indirect shells.

 

Indirect shell is made in a dental laboratory. A small amount of bone (0,5-1 mm) is ground by the dentist during the treatment, then – after impressing – the porcelain shell is prepared by a dental technician. Finally, the shell is fixed to the tooth with a special glue by the dentist.

The treatment is not recommended in case of massive dental caries or seriously injured teeth, certain types of occlusal diseases or night bruxism.

Dental prosthesis

Restoring edentulousness is not only an aesthetic, but a medical issue too. Due to edentulousness, the chewing ability decreases and the swallowing of less chewed and bigger bites may lead to gastrointestinal disorders. The primary aim of prosthesis is to restore chewing ability, to eliminate speech defects, and besides, there are aesthetic aspects as well.

Before starting a dental prosthesis process, a thorough dental examination and a treatment project is made. In case of a suspected metal allergy, a special dental metal allergy testing has to be carried out. The process is executed with local anaesthesia. It is recommended to have a meal before the treatment as it is not allowed to eat after anaesthetic injection, as long as the numbness lasts (3-4 hours).

Crowns and bridges

fogkorona_hid_fix_rogzitett_potlas_pecsCrowns are made in case of massive dental caries or injured teeth if the fillings and inlays are not sufficient. Crowns can also serve as defence for root canal treated teeth as they may be desiccated or fragile as their blood circulation terminates.

 

After making an anamnesis and a treatment project, the tooth has to be prepared for placing the crown, i.e. it has to be ground for making space for the crown. The tooth stump preparation depends on the type and material of the crown and also on the available bone amount. During grinding only a necessary amount has to be removed; the tooth stump is to ensure the stability and durability of the crown. Based on the impression of the stump, the opposite side teeth and the fixing of the biting conditions, the dental technician prepares the crown in different phases.

 

Until the prosthesis is ready (1-2 weeks), a temporary crown is made by the dentist to make this period more comfortable for the patient and to save the ground tooth from the environmental effects.

Material of crowns and bridges

We prepare porcelain crowns in our dentistry. These crowns are tooth-coloured on the visible surfaces, and metal coloured on the invisible ones. The metal under the porcelain can be fine metal (gold) or non-fine alloy. Plastic crown is not recommended as it does not last long, it is less aesthetic and it discolours and wears out easier than porcelain crown.

Zirconia (metal-free) crowns and bridges

Pressed ceramic teethBeside the traditional porcelain replacement, that is burnt to metal frame, the usage of zirconium is also popular in dentistry. Zirconium started to spread at the end of the 1990s, it was used mainly for replacing metal. It is an extremely hard and high tensile strength material. As it is metal-free, the crowns, made of it, do not cause allergic reaction. The colour of a zirconium framework adapts to the colour of the tooth, and due to its transparency it is possible to make a natural tooth-like crown or bridge. Due to its high technology, the zirconium implants have greater precision and perfect edge closure. Besides, due to its high tensile strength, longer bridges can be prepared than the traditional metal-porcelain bridges.

 

Bridges without grinding teeth

If the neighbouring teeth are suitable, inlays, i.e. fillings, are capable to fix the denture. These inlays function not only as fillings but also as components that stabilize the bridge.

Potential complications after placing a crown or a bridge

The average life of a crown is 8-10 years. However, it has to be replaced earlier if a gingival recession spreads faster than regularly. Life span can be increased with regular brushing. It is important to use dental floss between the crowns, special floss for cleaning under the bridge and interdental brush for the places that are hard to reach with a regular brush. Gingivitis may occur without using these.

Inconvenient bridge or crown may cause mandibular joint pain and masticatory pain. In case of metal allergy, a serious gingivitis may occur and black discolouration can evolve on the side of the crown edges. Therefore it is recommended to carry out a special metal allergy testing before a major prosthesis intervention.

 

Removable prosthesis (removable denture)

service_picIf the edentulous area is so much extended that it is not possible to use a fixed prosthesis, i.e. a bridge, it is necessary to prepare a removable prosthesis. Depending on its size, it can be partial (if teeth are available to fix it) or complete denture (in case of an edentulous crest). There are various dentures, may they be partial or complete, and for almost all patient a different solution is recommended; the same dental problem can have different solutions. It can be made of plastic (in case of a complete denture) or metal (in case of a partial denture) or flexible material (for making a temporary denture). In case of complete edentulousness it may occur that it is not possible to fix the denture completely because of the anatomic conditions, thus, it moves in the patient’s mouth. Implants (minimum two of them) may help stabilize the denture if the available bone is sufficient (if not, bone implant can also be used).The implant and the denture are fixed to each other with a snap, thus making the denture even steadier.

In case of partial edentulousness the denture can be fixed to the available teeth with a wire clamp; this way there is no need to grind the teeth (like in case of crowns). However, the clamp is not aesthetic and later it displaces the burdened tooth .The combined clasp, fixed to crowns and bridges, used for removable prosthesis, cannot be seen and it is absolutely aesthetic. Besides, it is steady and does not damage the existing teeth.

Preparation of a prosthesis

May it be any kind of a denture, the method of preparation is analogous: impression of the jaw > vertical dimension adaptation of the occlusal > modelling with teeth, placed in wax > prosthesis preparation by a dental technician. The whole process takes two weeks, a combined job may take three weeks.

Potential complications after prosthesis preparation

Both the patient and the facial muscles have to get used to the new prosthesis; primarily it may be a strange, alien feeling while speaking and chewing. The dentist can correct the denture if necessary. It is essential to clean the prosthesis after meals and to use denture cleansing tablet once a week as bacteria and funguses spread easily under the denture which causes inflammation. The prosthesis, that is out of use, has to be kept dry. It is advised to have a new prosthesis made after eight years of usage.

Oral surgery

Despite the quick development of dental services there are still some mutations that cannot be cured with any of the dental treatments. That is when oral surgery can help.

Tooth extraction

Tooth extraction may be necessary if there is:

  • a plexus tooth that maintains a chronic inflammation (i.e. upper tooth plexus may cause sinus infection)
  • a broken tooth with massive dental caries that cannot be cured or used for a prosthesis
  • an instable and loose tooth caused by parodontium disease a healthy tooth that needs to be removed for orthodontic treatment

The treatment is executed after a thorough dental examination and X-ray. The dentist decides whether the tooth needs to be simply pulled out or through operation. Both treatments can be executed straightaway. It is recommended to have a meal before the intervention as it is not allowed to eat after anaesthetic injection, as long as torpor lasts (3-4 hours).

Simple tooth extraction

A simple tooth extraction is executed with local anaesthesia. Firstly the gum is separated from the tooth with a special tool in order to protect the mucosal that surrounds the tooth. The tooth is loosened then removed with a forceps. In case of an inflamed tooth extraction the inflamed tissue, located in the wound cavity, also needs to be extracted. After the treatment it is necessary to bite on a gauze compress for twenty minutes.

Tooth extraction with operation

Sometimes the tooth cannot be extracted in a simple way, for example in cases of a broken dental root, a tooth that didn’t come out, a curved or splayed root (if it can be seen on the X-ray image) or an upper tooth that is located too close to the sinus (in this case the sinus will presumably open sometime). In such cases a tooth needs to be extracted with operation.

The intervention is executed with local anaesthesia. The dentist creates a gingival flap with removing the gum that surrounds the tooth. He removes the bone that obstructs the tooth extraction, then the tooth, too. He also removes the inflamed tissue, located in the wound cavity, and corrects the rough bone edges of the dental alveolus with nibblers. Finally, he closes the operation area with sutures. After the treatment it is necessary to bite on a gauze compress for thirty minutes, and when the bleeding stops the patient is allowed to go home.

Advices after tooth extraction:

After tooth extraction it is not allowed to rinse or spit as the callus may fall off the wound cause bleeding, besides, the chance of inflammation increases. Under the anaesthetic it is not allowed to eat as the patient may cause injury in his mouth. Dairy products are also prohibited for two days after the extraction, as these rations may result in the increase of bacteria in the wound. If there was an inflammation around the extracted tooth before the intervention, fever may occur afterwards; in this case febrifuge needs to be taken.

Potential complications after tooth extraction

Tooth extraction may result in the damage of the gum, crack on the side of mouth or herpes around mouth. The neighbouring tooth may get loose or its filling may fall out. Buccal may open at the upper teeth, or sensory nerve in the jaw bone may be injured at the lower teeth that may cause a temporary torpidity for months.

These complications may occur as a result of a simple extraction, therefore we might say that tooth extraction with operation is a safer way, besides, recovery is faster after operation.

Wisdom tooth extraction

Wisdom tooth often needs to be extracted, even among patients with absolutely healthy teeth. It is mostly necessary when a tooth is stuck in the jaw bone while coming out and stays in the wrong position.

Most common complaints related to displacement of wisdom teeth:

  • painful feeling of tension by the temporomandibular joint
  • limited ability to open the mouth
  • gingival pocket and its inflammation due to displacement
  • crowding of front teeth
  • dental caries in the teeth, located in front of a wisdom tooth

 

Before wisdom tooth extraction a thorough condition survey is made that is based on taking an X-ray. In case of a severely inflamed tooth antibiotic treatment needs to be done before the intervention as the surroundings of an inflamed tooth is difficult to anaesthetize. After a proper preparation process, analgesic extraction can be carried out.

The advices after the wisdom tooth extraction are the same as in the cases of other extractions.

Closing sinus

Sinus is located in the upper jaw bone. The opening of sinus is the most common intergrowth of the extraction of the small or big upper molar. It may occur if the dental root grows in the sinus, yet it sometimes cannot be seen on X-ray images.

After tooth extraction a so-called nose blowing test is done to check whether the sinus opening was successful. If so, the sinus has to be closed immediately with using local anaesthesia. The dentist creates a gingival flap, that is used for closing the cavity, and fixes it to the mucosal of the roof of the mouth with sutures.

Apectomy (root end surgery)

Apectomy means the removal of the root apex of dental root from the bone – while taking care of saving the tooth. The treatment is executed in case of a tooth with root canal filling.

 

Apectomy may be necessary if:

  • there is a cyst-like deformation around the root apex of a dead tooth that cannot be cured;
  • the root apex becomes inflamed a few months after root canal filling treatment, even in case of a seemingly healthy tooth;
  • there is a chronic inflammation around the root apex;
  • the root canal filling material had spread over the root end and got into the bone tissue;
  • a kind of a pseudo-path evolves during root canal treatment, therefore the instruments, that are for broaching the root canal, move on the wrong path;
  • the (above mentioned) instrument for broaching or the root canal filling condenser break into the root canal.

 

The operation is executed after root canal filling, with local anaesthesia; and it can be carried out before or even during the operation. The dentist creates a gingival flap, then sets the bone, that covers the root apex, free with a bone cutter (or an osteotome) and removes the freed root apex (at least 3 mm of it) and the possible inflamed tissue. If necessary, the synthetic bone needs to be filled in this gap. The wound is closed with sutures that are removed a week after the intervention. The tooth will be symptom-free and operable again in 4-6 months. It is recommended to have an X-ray based check-up in every half year afterwards.

Apectomy is a last chance to save the tooth from final removal; the chance of a successful operation is 60%.

Potential complications after the operation

The inflammation around the root apex may not subside if an abscess evolves again. This is why it is advised to have a check-up in every half year; the dentist can follow up the process of the healing and the ossification with the help of X-ray images. Other potential complications: injury of the gum, crack on the side of mouth, herpes around mouth or swollen face at the spot of the operation.

Post-operation advices

It is not allowed to suck or rinse the wound, to foment or warm the face with a pillow. It is allowed to chill the swollen part, but only from the outside for 1-2 minutes, 5-6 times a day. After brushing the teeth, it is advised to sterilize the oral cavity (e.g. with Chlorhexamed) 2-3 times a day. It is not allowed to do physically hard work for 7-8 days. If necessary, it is allowed to take a painkiller, however, antibiotics can be taken only if the doctor orders it.

Osteoplasty

Osteoplasty is one of the latest dental treatments; it may be a solution for different kinds of dental bone defects.

Such defect may evolve as a result of trauma, cyst, tumour, bone disease or an edentulous area. The decrease of the bone amount is mainly caused by the loss of a tooth, as it results in the cease of the mechanical stimulus that affects the bone; therefore the bone tissue begins to waste away.

For refilling the bone the following methods can be applied:

  • own (autogenous) bone that helps the regeneration of the weak bone. However, later another operation is necessary to gain own bone. In most cases, hip bone, shin bone, the frontal part of jaw or skullcap is used as own bone.
  • another person’s (allogenic)bone – however, this method is not applied in Hungary yet.
  • synthetic (alloplastic) materials: mainly tricalcium phosphate, hydroxy apatite etc. that are suitable for refilling smaller amount of bone.
  • brute (xenogeneic) materials that are made of pig bone (that had gone through a multi-phase sterilization process) under strictly controlled conditions.

 

The process of apectomy:

The intervention for gaining own bone is executed with local anaesthesia. With the help of X-ray, the dentist cuts the gum in particular spots and creates a gingival flap with removing the gum that surrounds the tooth. The refilling material is placed in the operation area; then the area is covered with resorbable and non-resorbable membranes. These membranes protect and help the ossification. The sides of the gum are set together again with sutures that are removed seven days later. Recovery takes three months after the intervention; during the recovery period the synthetic bone ossifies with its surroundings and becomes the part of the human body.

Sinus lift

Sinus is located in the maxilla, above the small and big molars’ region. When losing molars, there are only teeth abutments left; and the more time passes after the extraction of a tooth, the thinner the bone amount becomes under the basis of the sinus. Sinus lift method was evolved to thicken this bone plate; by now it has become a routine surgery intervention.

In most of the cases the intervention is executed before the implantation of an artificial root (implant), if the own bone amount is not sufficient.

The process of the operation

The intervention is executed with local anaesthesia. Fenestration is made outside of the cheekbone, then it is lifted in towards the sinus; as a result, it pushes the mucosa ahead of itself. The bone refilling material needs to be placed between the mucosa and the basis of the sinus, thus the height of the bone increases towards the oral cavity. The bone regeneration takes 6-8 months.

Oral cavity mutations, histology (cancer screening)

The oral cavity is checked during each control. In case of any tumour, the prevention is the most important thing to do. Most of the oral tumours can be detected with a simple physical examination. The development of a tumour is basically related to the overall poor condition of the teeth; unfortunately most of the people only go to the doctor when they feel pain.

There is no need for a specialist to notice a mutation, one just has to observe himself carefully. Anyone is able to examine himself with the help of a mirror. One needs to take a good look at his lips, palate, tongue and the area under the tongue.

Please, visit your doctor if you notice any of the following symptoms:

  • pain in the mouth, throat or ears,
  • ulcer in the mouth,
  • an unusual white or red discoloration,
  • lump or swelling on the lips, in the oral cavity or on the throat,
  • difficult or painful chewing or swallowing,
  • torpor in the mouth,
  • bleeding

 

Mandibular joint diseases

Mandibular joint (temporomandibular joint) is made of the mandible caput and the glenoid fossa that is located on the cranial base. There is a temporomandibular disk between the two bone surfaces; and the caput quasi lapses on this mandibular ribbon. The joint is held by special ribbons from the outside. The movement of the joint is not just a simple turn but a forward and backward slip combined with a mandibular joint rotation.

Diseases and injuries of the mandibular joint

Developmental disorders:

  • Ankylosis (bone adhesion between joint surfaces)
  • Trismus, i.e. lockjaw (spasmodic traction of the jaw muscle; mostly it is the result of a wisdom tooth inflammation)

 

Mandibular dislocation

Mandibular fracture

Teeth grinding at night (bruxism)

The exact cause of teeth grinding is still unclear. In case of children it often occurs at the time of changing teeth, when the position and size of the teeth are different, however, it may occur if one has a cold or upper respiratory infections. In case of adults it can be the result of stress. Grinding teeth is extremely straining for the teeth and the surrounding tissues. As the consequence, breaking of teeth and tooth fillings or damage of the enamel may occur.

Symptoms:

  • pain in the cheek or mandible jaw
  • headache
  • irritating sound

 

Its treatment:

Night guide: a flexible, transparent tool made by impression.

Antiphlogistics to reduce the pain, muscle relaxants, tranquilizers, physiotherapy treatments, massage, behavioural therapy, hypnosis and autogenic training.

Gingival pocket and intraosseous pocket treatment

One of the most feared dental diseases is gingivitis and the connecting gingival bleeding, gingival retraction, gingival pocket, periodontal bone desorption and intraosseous pocket. In the end, gingivitis causes a complete edentulous area. The bacteria of the mouth and the metabolites of these cause gingivitis; genetics does not play an important role in the development of the disease. Many factors are connected with each other in this process, such as the saliva composition, the position of the teeth and the possibility of cleaning them properly. However, it is the pellicle and plaque to be blamed mostly. Once the process begun, it cannot be stopped, but it can be slowed down with maintaining a proper oral hygiene.

Emergency care

  • Primary care of fresh dental injuries caused by accident (splinting, medication bond, tooth extraction)
  • Acute inflammation care (root canal treatment, tooth extraction)
  • Conservative treatment of periodontal and gingival inflammation
  • Abscess opening in the oral cavity
  • Removal of foreign objects that hinder swallowing or breathing
  • Medical treatment of acute inflammation of the mucous membranes
  • Trigeminal neuralgial paroxysm easing with local anaesthesia
  • Anastalsis of any bleeding in the oral cavity or in its surrounding (with tampon, bond, coagulation enhancing drugs, sutures).


Soft laser treatment

1110_Discus-Dental_Laser-1[1]Soft laser is basically used for pain and inflammation reduction and for acceleration of wound healing. Its high-energy laser rays are absorbed into the cells thus accelerating the biochemical processes that are necessary for healing.

Soft laser treatment is pain-free and takes only a few seconds each time.

It is used for:

  • herpes
  • aphthae
  • joint pain
  • post-traumatic pain
  • after bone surgeries (resection, implantation, tooth extract)
  • dental inflammations (osteoperiostisis, root canal treatment complain, lymphoid inflammation)
  • pain syndromes (atypical facial pain, trigeminal neuralgia)
  • complications related to tooth fracture and orthodontics)

X-ray and camera based examinations

Dental X-ray is inevitable in diagnostics. It is able to explore such hidden mutations that cannot be seen even with thorough clinical examinations.

These hidden mutations are:

  • dental caries that evolves on the surface of teeth facing to each other
  • dental caries under old tooth fillings
  • intraosseous pocket
  • inflammations around the root apex
  • cystic mutations in the oral cavity

 

Besides revealing pathological processes, with the help of X-ray it is possible to discover the position of permanent teeth in case of children. In case of adults it is used for the examination of wisdom teeth that did not come out and for checking the root canal filling.

Although dental X-ray radiation is low, patients have to wear lead apron for their own protection.

Intraoral X-ray

Intraoral X-ray is an image that is made inside the mouth for the examination of a tooth.

Orthopantomograph

An orthopantomographic image shows both jaws with all the teeth and other body parts, as well as the whole oral and nasal cavity. This type is called extraoral X-ray. While operating, along with the ray source, it moves around the patient’s head along his jaws.

Oral camera

Oral camera is a small camera with high resolution; its screen shows the shots made in the oral cavity. With the help of the camera it is possible to show the diseased areas that cannot be seen, besides, the phases of the treatment and its result can also be demonstrated for the patient. It is a great help in diagnostics and an excellent way to motivate the patient.